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Sunday, April 30, 2017

Child Labour and its Dismal Psychological Implications


The psychological effects of child labour in third-world countries are considerably intense as compared to the rest of the world due to poverty, low literacy rates and improper conduct with children.

Psychological effects of child labour are as severe as its physical ones but unfortunately, they received attention only at the end of the twentieth century.

Depression, hopelessness, shame, guilt, loss of confidence and anxiety are some of the horrible emotional effects of child labour, leading to a high risk of mental illness and antisocial behavior. To mitigate the psychological effects of child labour, proper awareness and education in societies are the utmost requirement.

Child labour is a very commonplace problem which has moved from a matter of regional and national anxiety to international discussion and possibly needs global influence and policy imposition. In order to overcome this enormous problem of our times, one must fully understand the factors which result in child labor, its consequences, and how to prevent it without harming affected children.

The problem of child labour significantly depends on culture and geographical location e.g. the younger generations of third-world countries are the main victims. According to UNICEF statistics, about one-third of the child population in developing countries do not even complete four years of education, culminating in circumstances of child labor (UNICEF, 2008).

An international labour organization (ILO) approximation shows that approximately 180 million children in developing countries are completely embroiled in child labour, and in Pakistan specifically, 12.5 million children were laboring.



One basic reason that pushes children to work is the low socio-economic condition of their family. Many times, their work ends up unpaid and compensated for only by their boarding and lodging. Child labour creates many physical hazards to child health but the most devastating effect is in fact psychological.

Children who become involved in different labor-related works have no opportunity to develop their natural psycho-social health; about 40% of child labourers are affected by abnormal psychological growth (Jordan, 2012).

Both the parents and children are often not aware of the scale of hazards to which these children are exposed. In some cases, the parents do know but can nnot find another alternative to create a source of income. To mitigate child labour, efforts must be made to create an environment which makes it easier for every child to go to school and prevents their parents from pulling out them before they can finish their basic education.

During the 19th century, the term “child labour” was introduced in Britain with the implication that the children should not be dragged to work (International Labour Organization). The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines child labour as an activity other than study or play carried out by a person, paid or unpaid, under the age of fifteen.

In 1989, the United Nation (UN) set the full range of children’s rights at the Convention on the Rights of the Child as well as the two ILO conventions, the Minimum Age Convention (No. 138, 1973) and the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (No.182, 1999). These rights were to protect children from exploitation and from any sort of work which would be harmful to their health (physical, mental, moral, spiritual or social).

The criteria set by ILO as ‘hazardous work’ was, ‘work that exposes children to physical harm, sexual exploitation, and psychological effects.’

As previously stated, the main reason that pushes children to work is the poor economic condition of their families. In most cases, a child’s family cannot even afford basic food and housing, let alone basic education for children. There are numerous reasons behind those families’ poverty, including national, traditional, historical and cultural.

Other reasons which may lead children to work include family breakdown (e.g. divorce) or a stigmatized attitude towards girls e.g. girls are discouraged from studying at school and propelled into adulthood at a much younger age than boys, either by work or an early wedding.

The employers are interested in hiring children because they are cheap and obedient. Inadequate laws and lack of education provide further opportunities to society to drag children into work.

In general, studies show that children working in factories and mines operate machinery, use chemicals, and are exposed to high or very cold temperatures, which ultimately endangers their lives. Also, children are used to direct life-threatening situational works such as sex work, as soldiers in wars, drugs and smuggling.

One particular example from the United State of America is that the victims of occupational accidents are aged 15-17 twice as often as they are adults (UNICEF, 2011). The lack of personal experience and emotional and physical maturity puts their lives in dangers.

Until 1998, most national and international studies focused their attention on the physical effects of child labour. However, children are more prone to psychological and social risks as compared to physical (reported by Leng and Mayers in 1998). Due to a lack of physical and mental maturity children are always appointed to the lowest grades and levels of their work.

Another study comparing psychological and behavioral problems between the working and non-working children shows that children’s development in the working case is almost seized. The study, conducted by Matalqa in 2004 in the streets of Jordan, showed that working children have lower levels of adaptive skill, lesser physical health and demonstrate unwanted social behaviors.

Child labourers using obscene words, exhibiting high emotions with low creativity and relying on excess use of cigarettes and alcohol was also one of the conclusions reported by Dmour in 2006. Child trafficking, which comes under the worst forms of child labour, has lasting psychological effects on the victims.

Children separated from their families, homes and communities continuously encounter sexual abuse and emotional trauma. Depression, hopelessness, shame, guilt, nightmares, loss of confidence, low self-esteem and anxiety are the appalling consequences faced by these trafficking children.

These pessimistic indications influence their senses and put them in a cycle of self-blame. Psychological abuse tremendously affects self-concept, personal goals, and relationships with others and seriously damages emotional well-being. Sexually-abused children are more likely to experience offensive emotional outcomes such as symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide.

Children exposed to these numerous experiences of victimization are at high risk of mental illness. Adults who experience such forms of child labour are likely to resort to violence and display antisocial behavior (Gordon Betcherman, Jean Fares,Amy Luinstra, and Robert Prouty, July, 2004).

To mitigate child labour, a coordinated set of multiple actions with well-meaning intentions is of the utmost importance. For example, to address the root causes of child labour, we must prevent children from dropping out of school and discourage parents from putting their children in the labor market.

It is necessary to construct appropriate and concise laws and policies which not only ensure child protection but are also understood by the parents in such a way so as to compel them to obey those laws.

In conclusion, child labour is a social and moral problem which damages society constantly. To understand and mitigate this problem, one should first fully understand the reasons which push children into the labor market, then the outcome of child labour and its impact on societies, and the need to explore appropriate approaches to bringing back children from labour work to schools.

Around the world, different reasons for child labour have been pointed out but the main reason stands as poverty. Child labour has numerous consequences but the psychological impact is the most long-term problem and needs attention on an emergency basis, especially in third-world countries where people lack awareness of it.

Existing studies about the psychological effect of child labour report that victims of child labour face depression, lack of trust, hopelessness, low levels of confidence, shame and guilt, low self-esteem and anxiety, and may grow up to be adults who also pose certain risks to society. For a better future and protective society, several coordinated actions must be taken to mitigate child labour.

Governments as well as responsible organizations around the world must provide an environment which makes it easier for poor people to keep their children in school (at least until primary education) and create awareness in societies about child labour and its outcomes.

Courtesy: JPMS Medical Blog / Dawn News

References:
Alem, A. A., Zergaw, A., Kebede, D., Araya, M., Desta, M., Muche, T., … & Medhin, G. (2007).
Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in Ethiopia. Ethiopian
Journal of Health Development, 20(2), 119-126.
Basu K, Tzannatos Z. The Global Child Labor Problem: What Do We Know and What Can We    Do? World Bank Econ Rev. 2003: 17:147–73
Babaraeisi M, et al. (2014). Compare of frustration intolerance between child labor and                  non-labor children, JNAS Journal, 1303-1306.
Betcherman, G., Fares, J., Luinstra, A., ( July 2004), Child Labor, Education, and Children’s            Rights: Gordon Betcherman.
Dykman, R., McPherson, B., Ackerman, P., Newton, J., Mooney, D., Wherry, J., et al. (1997).     Internalizing and externalizing characteristics of sexually and/or physically abused             children. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 32, 62–74.
Hart, S. N., & Brassard, M. R. (1987). A major threat to children’s mental health: Psychological                 maltreatment. American Psychologist, 42, 160–165.
Ilahi, N. (1999) “Children’s Work and Schooling: Does Gender Matter? Evidence from Peru         LSMS Panel Data,” Background paper for the World Bank Research Report on Gender.
Mitchels, B. (2004). Developing effective communication with children victims of violence and   trafficking. Practical handbook for social workers, police, and other professionals.
Read, J. (1997). Child abuse and psychosis: A literature review and implications for professional       practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 448–456.
Rafferty, Y. (2008). The impact of trafficking on children: Psychological and social policy
perspectives. Child Development Perspectives, 2(1), 13-18.
Sneddon, H. (2003). The effects of maltreatment on children’s health and well-being. Child Care         in Practice, 9, 236–250.
UNICEF and      UNMIK/ Government of Kosovo Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare.      Retrieved February 18, 2007.
Mohammad, M .(2010).Physical and Psychosocial Impact of Child Labor in Jordan, National
Council for Family Affairs.
Uddin, M. N., Hamiduzzaman, M., & Gunter, B. G. (2009). Physical and psychological
implications of risky child labor: A study in Sylhet city, Bangladesh (No. BDRWPS No.
8). Bangladesh Development Research Center (BDRC).
Woodhead M, Early Childhood Development: a question of rights, The Open University, UK  (2005).

Friday, April 7, 2017

‘Depression rising alarmingly in Pakistan's urban areas’

KARACHI: The Pakistan Medical Association on Thursday said depression in the country was much higher than the world average while its incidence was alarmingly greater in urban centres than rural districts.

Declaring ‘Depression’ the theme of World Health Day this year, the PMA said mental problems in the country were growing, particularly in big cities.

“Around 35.7 per cent citizens of Karachi are affected with mental illness, while 43pc people in Quetta and 53.4pc in Lahore are also affected,” said Dr Qaisar Sajjad, secretary general of the PMA in a statement.

Globally, said the PMA, depression affected 20pc of people while in Pakistan it was more serious with an estimated 34pc of the population suffering from it.


“Both genetic and environmental factors play chiefly in its pathogenesis.”

World Health Day will be observed today (Friday) across the world.

The PMA said it took it as an opportunity to highlight the issue and create awareness of the disease among the people of Pakistan.

Depression is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how one feels and the way one thinks and how one acts. “Fortunately, it is also treatable,” said the PMA official.

“Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities one enjoyed once. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home.”

Dr Sajjad said a number of factors could augment the chance of depression. Past physical, sexual, or emotional abuse could cause depression later in life; and certain medications could increase risk of depression.

“Depression may result from personal conflicts or disputes with family members or friends. A family history of depression may increase the risk. Even good events such as starting a new job, graduating, or getting married can lead to depression. So can moving, losing a job or income, getting divorced, or retiring. Problems such as social isolation due to other mental illnesses or being cast out of a family or social group can lead to depression.”

He said depression affected the cities here more, which was in conformity with what was happening in the rest of the world’s cities, as the urban life alienated a person more than rural settings.

“Apart from these causes, power shortages, non-availability of potable water, unemployment, traffic jams, intolerance, insecurity, and law and order situation are also factors which increase depression day by day in our society.

“Even the way our channels broadcast breaking news increases depression.”

Experts said depression symptoms could vary from mild to severe and included feeling sad or having a depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed, changes in appetite (weight loss or gain unrelated to dieting), trouble sleeping or sleeping too much, loss of energy or increased fatigue, increase in aimless physical activity [hand-wringing or pacing] or slowed movements and speech [actions observable by others], feeling worthless or guilty, difficulty in thinking, concentrating or making decisions, and thinking about death or committing suicide.

Prof S. Haroon Ahmed said the prevalence of depressive disorder in Pakistan was more than 40pc with women accounting for 57.5pc while more than a quarter of men in the country were depressed.

The PMA said as depression was the root cause of many mental disorders and sickness, there was a need to develop a policy to tackle anxiety and depressive disorders on a national scale.

“Steps need to be taken to overcome the dearth of qualified psychiatrists in the country.”

Published in Dawn, April 7th, 2017

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

“TAME” – Tremor Acquisition Minimization Device by NUST Students


The anti-tremor device namely “TAME” by the students from NUST – National University of Sciences and Technology, won the 2016-2017 Design Challenge held by the Stanford Center on Longevity in USA.

What are Tremors?

Mostly affecting the hands, a tremor is a type of neurological disorder where a person experiences unintentional, shaking movement. Besides hands, it can affect other body parts like the head and voice too.

There are many types of tremors depending upon the nature of the involuntary movements and their sources. They are categorized as follows:

Resting tremors – These tremors occur when your muscles are resting, and when you move those muscles the tremors may disappear or become less noticeable. Example, Parkinson’s disease.

Action tremors – These tremors occur when you are intentionally or purposefully moving the muscle of the body part, such as, when you are writing, pushing a button, or you are reaching for an object. Example, multiple sclerosis. Action tremors are again of two types – postural tremor, and kinetic or intention tremor.

Idiopathic tremors This is a type of tremor that has developed spontaneously or due to an unknown cause. Example, Idiopathic Dystonic Tremor.

Common treatment for tremors:
Conventional forms of treatment include medication and physiotherapy to help the patient strengthen their muscles and reduce the intensity of the tremors. But now there might just be a ray of hope for these patients who might be able to go back to normal life with the help of this device called TAME.

What is TAME?

Short for tremor acquisition and minimization, it is the World’s First wearable device for pathological tremor categorization and real time suppression. Pathological tremors are the most common neurological movement disorder which cause involuntary rhythmic shaking of various parts of the human body, most commonly the hands.


Around 280 Million people worldwide have lost their independence due to these tremors. They have to depend on others to perform the simplest tasks in life like eating, drinking and even dressing themselves. But unfortunately even after such medical advancements the scientists are far from even understanding the root cause of the disorder let alone find a cure for it.

A team from SEECS, NUST comprising of Awais Shafique, Hooriya Anam and Muhammad Arsalan Javed under the supervision of Dr. Syed Muhammad Raza Kazmi, are working on a breakthrough technology called TAME which is a noninvasive Tremor Suppression device that can give back the control and ease to the tremor patients to perform their routine tasks without hindering their voluntary movements.

TAME uses a technique called Functional Electrical Stimulation in which low voltage electric current is used for muscle actuation and to generate movement.  Motion censors are used to detect how the tremor is moving in the arm and the device in turn, generate a counter movement for suppression of the tremor and to stabilize the hand.

It is a complete solution for the treatment and diagnosis of Pathological Tremor patients in the form of an intuitive, user friendly and easily manageable wearable device connected to cloud storage for easy management and sharing of diagnosis files. The team competed in BITA 2015 with the most brilliant innovations from Industry and Academia in Pakistan and received the Best I.T innovation Award 2015 along with PKR. 1 Million.

A team from SEECS, NUST comprising of Awais Shafique, Hooriya Anam and Muhammad Arsalan Javed under the supervision of Dr. Syed Muhammad Raza Kazmi, are working on this breakthrough technology called TAME.

Watch the following short video to learn about the project:



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